Taxonomies of the Cognitive Domain:
Bloom’s Taxonomy 1956
Anderson and Krathwohl’s Taxonomy 2000
1. Knowledge: Remembering or retrieving previously learned material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:
know identify relate list define recall memorize repeat record name recognize acquire
1. Remembering: Retrieving, recalling, or recognizing knowledge from memory. Remembering is when memory is used to produce definitions, facts, or lists, or recite or retrieve material.
2. Comprehension: The ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:
restate locate report recognize explain express identify discuss describe discuss review infer illustrate interpret draw represent differentiate conclude
2. Understanding: Constructing meaning from different types of functions be they written or graphic messages activities like interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.
3. Application: The ability to use learned material, or to implement material in new and concrete situations. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:
apply relate develop translate use operate organize employ restructure interpret demonstrate illustrate practice calculate show exhibit dramatize
3. Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Applying related and refers to situations where learned material is used through products like models, presentations, interviews or simulations.
5. Synthesis: The ability to put parts together to form a coherent or unique new whole. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:
compose produce design assemble create prepare predict modify tell plan invent formulate collect set up generalize document combine relate propose develop arrange construct organize originate derive write propose
5. Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Critiques, recommendations, and reports are some of the products that can be created to demonstrate the processes of evaluation. In the newer taxonomy evaluation comes before creating as it is often a necessary part of the precursory behavior before creating something.
Remember this one has now changed places with the last one on the other side.
6. Evaluation: The ability to judge, check, and even critique the value of material for a given purpose. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:
judge assess compare evaluate conclude measure deduce argue decide choose rate select estimate validate consider appraise value criticize infer
6. Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Creating requires users to put parts together in a new way or synthesize parts into something new and different a new form or product. This process is the most difficult mental function in the new taxonomy.
This one used to be #5 in Bloom’s known as synthesis.
One of the things that differentiates the new model from that of the 1956 original is that it lays out components nicely so they can be considered and used.
The discussion of the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy was in conjunction with reviewing the new NETS*S at the OETC professional development cadre. My group was focusing on Sections 3 & 4 and discussing that if we really want to engage our students in critical thinking skills, we need to be developing lessons that use the higher level skills from Bloom’s taxonomy. This is true whether you are integrating technology or not!
Updated National Educational Technology Standards for Students:
I. Creativity and Innovation
Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes
using technology. Students:
A. apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
B. create original works as a means of personal or group expression.
C. use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues.
D. identify trends and forecast possibilities.
II. Communication and Collaboration
Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance,
to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Students:
A. interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments
B. communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
C. develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
D. contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.
III. Research and Information Fluency
Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students:
A. plan strategies to guide inquiry.
B. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
C. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks.
D. process data and report results.
IV. Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making
Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make
informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources. Students:
A. identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
B. plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
C. collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
D. use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.
V. Digital Citizenship
Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical
A. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.
B. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity.
C. demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning.
D. exhibit leadership for digital citizenship.
VI. Technology Operations and Concepts
Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations. Students:
A. understand and use technology systems.
B. select and use applications effectively and productively.
C. troubleshoot systems and applications.
D. transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies.